用文体推断法解答主旨题

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约9610字。

  用文体推断法解答主旨题
  高考阅读理解中的主旨大意题(main idea,mainly about)、给文章选标题(title)、推断作者的写作目的(purpose,intend to)等题型主要是考查学生在阅读全文的基础上归纳总结文章大意的能力。解答这类题的关键是找准主题句。主题句在哪里?可根据不同文体来找主题句。
  一、议论文或说明文
  议论文或说明文的主题句一般在文首,但有的在文尾,也有的首尾呼应。
  [例1](2016年全国Ⅰ卷D篇 )
  [说明文]The meaning of silence varies among cultural groups. Silences may be thoughtful, or they may be empty when a person has nothing to say. A silence in a conversation may also show stubbornness, or worry. Silence may be viewed by some cultural groups as extremely uncomfortable; therefore attempts may be made to fill every gap(间隙) with conversation. Persons in other cultural groups value silence and view it as necessary for understanding a person’s needs.
  Many Native Americans value silence and feel it is a basic part of communicating among people, just as some traditional Chinese and Thai persons do. Therefore, when a person from one of these cultures is speaking and suddenly stops, what may be implied(暗示) is that the person wants the listener to consider what has been said before continuing. In these cultures, silence is a call for reflection.
  Other cultures may use silence in other ways, particularly when dealing with conflicts among people or in relationships of people with different amounts of power. For example, Russian, French, and Spanish persons may use silence to show agreement between parties about the topic udner discussion. However, Mexicans may use silence when instructions are given by a person in authority rather than be rude to that person by arguing with him or her. In still another use, persons in Asian cultures may view silence as a sign of respect, particularly to an elder or a person in authority.
  Nurses and other care-givers need to be aware of the possible meanings of silence when they come across the personal anxiety their patients may be expericencing. Nurses should recognize their own personal and cultural construction of silence so that a patient’s silence is not interrupted too early or allowed to go on unnecessarily. A nurse who understands the healing(治愈) value of silence can use this understanding to assist in the care of patients from their own and from other cultures.
  35. What may be the best title for the text?
  A. Sound and Silence
  B. What It Means to Be Silent
  C. Silence to Native Americans
  D. Speech Is Silver; Silence Is Gold
  解析:本文为说明文,由文章的首句The meaning of silence varies among cultural groups以及第二段和第三段的首句可知文章主要介绍了在不同文化背景下谈话期间沉默的不同含义。故选B项。
  二、新闻报道
  新闻报道的主题句就是导语,即文章的首句或首段。正文采取倒金字塔形式,最重要事实,次要事实,最次要事实。
  [例2](2017年全国卷C篇)
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